The Department of Energy (Department), as a result of budget reduction and Government-wide downsizing goals, reduced Federal staff by about 24 percent between 1995 and 1998. This massive downsizing created mission-critical staffing needs in a number of technical areas. As of May 2001, the Department's Federal workforce consisted of about 9,900 permanent employees, including about 4,600 scientific and technical staff. In a November 2000 report, the Office of Inspector General identified Human Capital as one of the most significant challenges facing the Department. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department has been able to recruit and retain scientific and technical personnel.